Water Softener - How does Water Softener Work and what is Soft Water and Hard Water?
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What are Water Softeners?

Water Softeners are device which remove certain minerals like calcium and magnesium from hard water and makes Water Soft.

Difference between Hard Water and Soft Water?
Water is "soft" or "hard" it depends up on the presence of some minerals like calcium and magnesium.
Hard water:
  • The water with high mineralscontent like calcium and magnesium with detectable amount is called hard water.
Soft water:
  • The Water that contains low concentrations of ions of calcium and magnesium.
What is Water softening?
Water softening is the process of removal of certain metals like calcium and magnesium from the hard water and makes it soft.
  • Water softening is usually achieved via using lime softening or ion-exchange resins.
Basically Water Hardness is measured in 2 units one is “ppm” and another is “gpg”

PPM stands for “parts per million” 1 ppm means that one unit of calcium carbonate is properly dissolved in 1 million units of water. ppm is also equal to milligrams/liter (mg/l). gpg stands for “grains per gallon” 1 gpg equals approximately 17 mg/l or ppm.

  • Basically these 2 units are used in report when water is tested, and these units determine at what extent Water is hard.
  • The Water Specialists have classified levels of hardness check the table below.
Classification Parts per million or milligrams per liter (ppm) or (mg/l)
Soft Less than 17
Slightly hard 17 to 60
Moderately hard 60 to 120
Hard 120 to 180
Very hard Greater than 180
Once water hardness is known, there are two choices. We can relate to the hardness level, perceiving that levels below 7.0 gpg will presumably not cause significant scaling and soap film, or treat the water to lessen the calcium and magnesium present. A water conditioner, likewise called an exchange unit
How Does Water Softener Works?
Water softeners work through a process called ion exchange method which described below.
Ion Exchange Method
Ion exchange is considering one of the best water treatment methods. In this method one or more undesirable ionic particles like magnesium and calcium are removed from water by exchange with another non-objectionable substance or ions.
How does ion exchange work?
A physical and chemical process filters the water through an exchange media known as zeolite or resin. Ordinarily, the resin is natural or synthetic, sand-like material covered with positively charged sodium particles or ions. As the magnesium and calciumproperly dissolved into+ve charged particles, an ion exchange climate is made. The water moves through the unit while the resin releases its sodium particles and promptly exchanges them for the magnesium and calcium particles. The water streaming out of the device isnow considered soft Water.

Regeneration is a water softening process in this Water flushes out all type of substance, ion, particles which catches from the hard Water and make all the water soft which pass or comes through it. When the hard Water passes through water softener then magnesium and calcium ions exchanged with sodium ions. Basically this process happens in resin bed. To make this system effective industrial Water softener required cleansing the harsh minerals resins bed when it becomes saturated.

Main Advantages and disadvantages of Water Softening Process
  • Water softeningprocess resolves the problems caused by hard water like scaling and excessive soap use.
  • Water softening process often removes manganese or iron, reduces tastes as well as odors.
  • Sometimes it can aid in disinfection due to high pH associated with lime softening process.
  • Main Disadvantage of water softening is the potential health risks for people on low sodium diets.
  • Some of the essential minerals like calcium and magnesium are eliminated from the homeowner's diet.
Use Water Usage
Household drinking and cooking purpose 3 Litres/person/day
Bathing and showering 10-60 liters/use
Dishwashing 6-19 liters/use
Clothes washing 20-33 liters/use
Guidelines for estimating water use.
Real picture of Water softener System
Here in this blog you will get all kind of information regarding Water Softeners, Water Softener method how Water Softener works and much more. Check the complete Water Softener system Specification.Or for more information contact our Expert at Pearl water Technologies.